Gravitational waves and climate change

Since early 2018, I’ve contributed multiple articles to Mercury, the membership magazine for the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP). These articles are only available in full to members of ASP, but recently Mercury has put extensive previews for certain articles up on the website as enticement to join. One of those articles is my piece about the GRACE Follow-On mission, which is simultaneously a project that measures the effects of climate change and is a testbed for the upcoming LISA gravitational-wave observatory.

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The Gravity of Climate Change

For Mercury:

Orbiting spacecraft are an essential tool for mapping worlds in the Solar System, providing information about everything from landforms to magnetic fields. Repeated monitoring helps scientists measure variations in a planet as the seasons change. That’s particularly true for the planet we know best, and one that is experiencing the biggest variations of all the worlds in the Solar System: Earth.

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission consists of twin space probes designed to measure Earth’s gravity to high resolution. That measurement is important for geology—seismic activity and other substantial shifts in Earth’s crust—but also for tracking shifts in water and ice around the world. Those variations help researchers measure the melting of polar ice, along with more subtle phenomena like the depletion of aquifers in western North America and India, for example.

In addition to its essential work measuring ice melting and climate change, GRACE-FO will test a vital component of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the planned space-based gravitational wave observatory that will continue the work of LIGO and its Earth-based observatories.

[Read the rest of the preview in Mercury]

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Gaining time for brain cancer patients with mathematics

The linked article is for SIAM News, the magazine for members of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM). The audience for this magazine, in other words, is professional mathematicians and related researchers working in a wide variety of fields. While the article contains equations, I wrote it to be understandable even if you skip over the math.

[ This blog is dedicated to tracking my most recent publications. Subscribe to the feed to keep up with all the science stories I write! ]

Mathematical Modeling Gains Days for Brain Cancer Patients

For SIAM News:

Glioblastoma, or glioblastoma multiforme, is a particularly aggressive and almost invariably fatal type of brain cancer. It is infamous for causing the deaths of U.S. Senators John McCain and Ted Kennedy, as well as former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden’s son Beau. Though glioblastoma is the second-most common type of brain tumor—affecting roughly three out of every 100,000 people—medicine has struggled to find effective remedies; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved only four drugs and one device to counter the condition in 30 years of research. The median survival rate is less than two years, and only about five percent of all patients survive five years beyond the initial diagnosis.

Given these terrible odds, medical researchers strive for anything that can extend the effectiveness of treatment. The nature of glioblastoma itself is responsible for many obstacles; brain tumors are difficult to monitor noninvasively, making it challenging for physicians to determine the adequacy of a particular course of therapy.

Figure 1. Magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain. Public domain image.
Kristin Rae Swanson and her colleagues at the Mayo Clinic believe that mathematical models can help improve patient outcomes. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for calibration, they constructed the proliferation-invasion (PI) model — a simple deterministic equation to estimate how cancer cells divide and spread throughout the brain. Rather than pinpoint every cell’s location, the model aims to categorize the general behavior of each patient’s cancer to guide individualized treatment.

[Read the rest at SIAM News]