The particles of the the Standard Model and its simplest supersymmetric version. [Credit:
Symmetry and elegance have proven to be a very successful way to think about the physical Universe. Arguably the greatest successes in 20th century particle physics came from translating mathematical symmetries into predictions about the results of particle collisions. However, not every symmetry thus far has led to a successful theory, and one of the frustrations is that a natural consequence of a symmetry in the theory of relativity hasn’t produced the predicted particles. The currently unfulfilled theory is known as supersymmetry (or SUSY), and so far none of its predictions have borne out experimentally.
However, a completely analogous version of SUSY could exist in certain exotic superconductors. This is not built out of elementary particles, but out of interactions between electrons and atoms, giving rise to a set of particle-like quantum excitations known as quasiparticles.
The new paper discussed the idea of emergent SUSY-like behavior in topological superconductors. In these systems (described in more detail in the sidebar story), the interior of the material conducts electricity without resistance, but the outside is an ordinary conductor. The authors argued that experimentally observed magnetic behavior on the conducting surface could be interpreted super symmetrically. It also exhibits a breaking of SUSY due to the fundamental difference in interior and surface behavior of the system.
In this view, the magnetic excitations (acting like bosons) on the surface are SUSY partners with the topological superconductor quasiparticles, which are fermions. [read more…]
Typically, reversing the direction of time twice is the same as never reversing it at all. Think of running an old-fashioned filmstrip backward, then forward (not an unusual experience for those of us um…of a certain generation): the film will look the same as though you never ran it backward. However, a particular uranium compound, URu2Si2, may break that rule. In that sense, it behaves akin to a spinor, the mathematical description of particles like electrons, protons, and so forth. (For more on spinors, read my earlier post at Galileo’s Pendulum.) This model could explain all the weird properties of the uranium compound, including its strange magnetic behaviors.
A new model may help resolve the confusion by proposing a different form of symmetry breaking. Ordinarily, if you reverse the direction of time (akin to running a movie backward), then reverse it again, everything comes back to normal. For the particular uranium-rubidium-silicon compound at issue, Premala Chandra, Piers Coleman, and Rebecca Flint argued that symmetry is broken: it will not behave normally even under double time reversal. While a literal double reversing of time isn’t possible in the lab, the broken symmetry has a measurable consequence in the distortion of electron orbits in the uranium. If confirmed, this hypothesis could resolve a thirty-year-old mystery. [Read more…]