A mystery: an unknown star, too faint to notice, suddenly expanded to a huge size, increasing in brightness to become one of the most luminous stars known. This star doesn’t even have a real name, just a “license plate” catalog number: V838 Monocerotis, indicating that it’s a not very important star in the constellation the Unicorn (Monoceros). However, a new paper has proposed the powerful flare could be explained by a well-accepted theory of binary star behavior, in which one star strips enough matter off the other until it suddenly grows to a huge size. These common envelope events (as they are known) could explain the V838 Monocerotis outburst, along with some other currently mysterious flares.
A new Science paper proposes that a class of violent astronomical events that we’ve observed may be due to common envelope stars, providing more direct evidence for their existence. These cataclysms are known as “red transient outbursts,” and in brightness terms, they’re somewhere between novas (flares of nuclear activity at the surfaces of white dwarfs) and supernovas, the violent deaths of stars. N. Ivanova, S. Justham, J. L. Avendado Nandez, and J. C. Lombardi Jr. identified a possible physical model for these outbursts, based on the recombination of electrons and ions in the plasma when the stars’ envelopes merge. [Read more…]