A net for neutrinos at the bottom of the sea

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Casting a net for neutrinos

The KM3NeT experiment will catch the elusive particles using the Mediterranean Sea

For Symmetry Magazine:

Like ordinary telescopes, KM3NeT operates in darkness—but there the resemblance ends. The Km3 Neutrino Telescope (where km3 means a cubic kilometer) is a suite of detectors that sits at the pitch-black bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, 3.5 kilometers below the waves and strong currents of the surface.

KM3NeT needs this absolute night to see the faint amount of light from ghostly neutrinos striking water molecules. Neutrinos pass through most material as though it weren’t there, which is why detectors need to be so big to spot them—more volume means more chances to see a neutrino interact. When completed, KM3NeT will be the largest neutrino detector in the world, made of about 1.3 trillion gallons of seawater. [Read the rest at Symmetry Magazine]

A discovery that made a thousand scientists burst into cheers and tears

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Part of one of the mirror assemblies that make up the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) at Livingston, Louisiana. I visited the site in 2012 during the upgrade of the lab to Advanced LIGO. [Credit: moi]

Part of one of the mirror assemblies that make up the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) at Livingston, Louisiana. I visited the site in 2012 during the upgrade of the lab to Advanced LIGO. [Credit: moi]

It’s not every day that we get to usher in an entirely new branch of astronomy. Yesterday, members of the LIGO collaboration announced the first direct detection of gravitational waves, which are a way to study the universe we can’t see using light. Much of my PhD research involved gravitational physics, including a bit of gravitational wave work. I even visited LIGO twice because … well, why not? For that reason, yesterday’s announcement brought tears to my eyes, and I’m not the only one. This is the start of a new in the study of the universe. And here’s what I had to say about it for The Atlantic:

The Dawn of a New Era in Science

By announcing the first detection of gravitational waves, scientists have vindicated Einstein and given humans a new way to look at the universe

For The Atlantic:

More than a billion years ago, in a galaxy that sits more than a billion light-years away, two black holes spiraled together and collided. We can’t see this collision, but we know it happened because, as Albert Einstein predicted a century ago, gravitational waves rippled out from it and traveled across the universe to an ultra-sensitive detector here on Earth.

This discovery, announced today by researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), marks another triumph for Einstein’s general theory of relativity. And more importantly, it marks the beginning of a new era in the study of the universe: the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy. The universe has just become a much more interesting place. [Read the rest at The Atlantic]

Why are neutrino masses so tiny?

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Neutrinos on a seesaw

A possible explanation for the lightness of neutrinos could help answer some big questions about the universe.

For Symmetry Magazine:

Mass is a fundamental property of matter, but there’s still a lot about it we don’t understand—especially when it comes to the strangely tiny masses of neutrinos.

An idea called the seesaw mechanism proposes a way to explain the masses of these curious particles. If shown to be correct, it could help us understand a great deal about the nature of fundamental forces and—maybe—why there’s more matter than antimatter in the universe today. [Read the rest at Symmetry Magazine….]

Could gravity have mass?

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Might gravity have mass?

Click on the image to read the whole article for free, courtesy of Physics World.

Click on the image to read the whole article for free, courtesy of Physics World.

From Physics World:

When confronted with something unexplained in the data, scientists face several possibilities. Maybe there’s an error and the result is spurious. Maybe there’s a more mundane explanation they simply overlooked. Or perhaps the unexplained is a sign that a theory needs to be revised or supplanted. That last option is the rarest, at least when the theory in ques- tion is a successful one. After all, any new theory must explain all the same phenomena an old theory explained, and predict something new that can’t be handled with the old.

One unexplained result that’s been bugging physicists for more than 15 years is dark energy, which is the name we give to our ignorance. The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, but we don’t know why. To make matters worse, dark energy comprises roughly three-quarters of the total energy content of the cosmos, so it’s not a minor thing we don’t get. For that reason, a small but dogged group of physicists thinks the existence of dark energy might be a clue that we need to revise one of the most successful theories we have: general relativity.

One way to revise general relativity is to modify the nature of the gravitational force so that it behaves as though it has mass.

The rest of this story is in the print edition of Physics World, which you can subscribe to through membership in the Institute of Physics, which costs £15, €20, or $25 per year. You can join by clicking here. You can also get a nice mobile- and tablet-formatted version of the story using the Physics World app, available in the Google Play and iTunes stores. However, if you just want to read the rest of this article, Physics World has kindly allowed me to offer it to you as a PDF download, which looks exactly like the printed version!